Perspective on Global Justice / Globale Gerechtigkeit im Blick
Balkrishna Kurvey: Globalisation, Causes of War and non-military solutions, ecology and war / Rede von Balkrishna Kurvey (Indien) auf der alternativen Friedenskonferenz
Im Folgenden dokumentieren wir eine weitere Rede von der Podiumsveranstaltung "Frieden und Gerechtigkeit gestalten", die am 11. Februar im Alten Rathaus in München stattfand. Die Ansprachen von Horst-Eberhard Richter und Gerald Oberansmayr von derselben Veranstaltung haben wir bereits veröffentlicht. Außerdem sprachen noch der Schirmherr der Veranstaltung, Hans-Peter Dürr, sowie ein Vertreter der Stadt München. Die Veranstaltung wurde von Angelika Holterman moderiert.
PERSPECTIVE ON GLOBAL JUSTICE
Globalisation, Causes of War and non-military solutions, ecology and war
People are more connected with each other. Information flows quickly around the world. Goods and services produced in one country is available world wide. International travel is swift and more frequent. International communication is easy.. This phenomenon is called a Globalization. We can aptly say that we are living in a global Village.
Globalisation is not only a global business It also operate without border for social activist, labour organizations, journalists, academics and many others to work on a global stage. Globalization describes the political, economic and cultural atmosphere of today.
It should be liberal to social democractic globalization. If developed countries want rapid progress towards global legal codes that will help in security and action against threat of terrorism, they must also participate in a wider process of reforms that address the insecurity of life in the developing countries.
A thoughtful people concerned about world affairs, nurture and promote the good parts and mitigate or slow down the bad.
Globalization is a two edged sword and it has also ugly dark part. But it has also good part of system to keep it from devouring societies, globalization required anti-trust laws, the securities and exchange concession, labor laws to keep American Capitalism in check and transparent mechanism.
Globalization is like a fire. Globalization imparts arms (and arms control) in 2 ways. It has change the way weapons are made and sold around the world. This also applies to cars, refrigerators, tanks, rifles and jet fighters.
Critics say globalization is nothing more than the imposition of America culture on the entire world. In fact, the most visible sign of globalization seems to be the spread of American burgers and cola to nearly every country on earth.
Globalization is a contested concept that refers to sometimes contradictory social process. Growing forms of political and economical interdependence fuelled by ‘New technologies’ camera, internet, phones etc. Technology provides only a partial explanation for the extends of contemporary forms of globalization but it have played a crucial role in the creation, multiplication, expansion and intensification of global social interconnection and exchange of interest. This has enhanced of world wide interdependence.
ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF GLOBALIZATION
New forms of technology are one of the hallmarks of contemporary globalization. Economic globalization refers to the intensification and stretching of economic interrelation across the globe. Markets have extended their reach around the world, in the process, creating new linkages among national economy is huge transnational corporations, powerful international economic institutions and large regional trading system have emerged a major building block of the 21st century’s global economic order.
POLITICAL DIMENSION OF GLOBALIZATION
Political globalization refers to the intensification and expansion of political relations across the globe. This process leads to regional and global governance e.g. EU.
CLTURAL DIMENSION OF GLOBILIZATION
Cultural dimension refer to the intensification and expansion of cultural flows across the globe. Culture is a very broad concept. It is a whole of human experience, language music and images. It should not world wide expansion of Rock’n’Roll, Coca cola and football.
Ideology is a system of widely shared ideas, patterned beliefs, guiding norms and values. And ideals accepted as truth by a particular group of people.
CHALLENGES TO GLOBILIZATION
At present time globalization for neoliberal is the understanding of sustain and reconfirmed by powerful political institutes and economic corporation. At the end of 20th century anti globalization movement took root and now it is receiving more attention in the public discourses and awareness that how extreme corporate project strategies were leading to widening global disparities in wealth and well being. and interference of the international community.
Globilazation started the economic disparities and inequality Poverty is a contribution and widening wealth and income gap increased and probability of armed violence. Modern war spring from the terrible disparities in the possession of wealth and resource, political violence occurred in poor countries.
No single ideology enjoys absolute recognition. Gap between ideology and people on ground experience differ and dissenting social groups finds easier to convey to people their own ideas.
At the close of 20th century, global organization received more attention and it hold ground on the theory that how extreme corporate profit strategies were leading to widening gap, disparities in wealth and well being.
CAUSES OF WAR
Human being discussed the causes of war from early time. Why men fight and why they should not fight.
1) Human Aggressiveness and war: People have done most terrible act of violence on another human being.
2) Role of family members and outsiders, values and norms of society influenced. Mass media create and reflect sociatical norms.
- Social nature’
- Technical (man made) this is a main cause of modern and future wars.
CAUSES OF WAR TYPOLOGY/REASONS
1) Social, Political and Economic
i) Poverty: “If through our Wisdom, we could make secure elementary human needs, there would be no need for weapons” Mahatma Gandhi. Desperation of poverty that has driven men to organized violence to resort to arms.
ii) Material World: Competition for natural resources as one of the economic causes of war. Military industrial complex, Arms trade and war money. Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW).
Von Clausewitz “War is a continuation of politics through an additional means. This relate to the various forms of power and domination. Political interest are often motivated by or rooted in the economy. distribution, redistribution of various resources, money, industrial potential or territory
iii) Power blocks
2) Religious Wars:
Religions was a center point in many conflicts which is characterized for territorial sovereignty, political autonomy and access to resources. . In some case like Balkan religion still pay an important role in war.
Ethnicity Inter communal conflicts: Cultural.spitirual world: Identity influence. Ethnic cleansing, Croatia, Ustache policy of expelling or cleansing Serbs, Gypsies, Muslims. German Nazi programme creating a pure 3rd Reich. Kashmiri Pandits expelled from Kashmir valley
4) Legacy of hatred and desire for revenge.
5) Films, war toys, propaganda
7) Misuse of Science: Nuclear weapons/ biotechnology weapons
ECOLOGY OF WAR
After the cold war as the sponsorship to many armed groups around the world stops and they relied on revenues from natural resources as oil, timber and gems.
Natural resources modified conflicts and shaped strategies of power based on the commercialization of armed conflicts and the territorialisation of sovereignty around valuable resource areas and trading network.
Armed conflicts in the post cold war period are increasingly characterized by a specific.
issues like human pressure on natural resources are increasing. Many resources are depleting and deteriorating which created competition and conflicts between nations or groups. The sources of conflicts prone to resource are fresh water, productive land, fisheries, mineral deposits and fossil fuels. After ww2 many nations depend on fossil fuel, Gulf war 1990-91 conflict was for access to oil resource. . Dam/resource as weapons of war. Environment is the voiceless victims of war and military conflicts
When Soviet Union withdraws from former East Germany in 1992, 1.5 million tones of arms were destroyed and most of weapons were burned without filters. Spreading highly toxic chemicals
NON MILITARY CONFLICT RESOLUTION
There are no ultimate winners in war, neither people, nations, nor planetary ecosystem.
International war 3 characters:
Conflicts between societies: negotiation between two sides involves the political leaders.
- Role of leader is paramount
- Most important role differences.
In ethnic, religious conflicts, reconciliation between the combatants has proves to be possible. Just as global environmental problem require diplomacy and negotiation, so do global security issues.
War is not the answer to international conflict and negotiation is the solution.
National security would be better realized by working sustainable, meaningful lives for all. rather then increasing defense and security spending and engaging in armed conflicts.
Lyod Axworthy of Canada and Kunt Volleback of Norway ex Foreign Ministers of Canada and Norway in their paper emphasis that most fundamental challenge we face is the realization of a humane world. World as a moral imperative. “Our goal must be to work with other like mined countries and partners from civil society to assume respect for human rights and fundamental law” e.g. Landmines
Mr. Axworthy in his paper “War Not the Only Solution” said that “Every diplomatic and non-military avenue for the prevention or peaceful resolution of the humanitarian crisis must have been explored. The responsibility to react - with military coercion – can only be justified when the responsibility to prevent has been fully discharged”.
Prevent wars : Starts with the establishment or the strengthening of democratic institution
- Serve the people at large and especially to very poor
- Transparency, accountability and respect for Human Rights of all citizens.
This will make more difficult to war bent leaders to attain power and use the power for war. National level, strengthening democracy, education.
International level for peace and war the system of multilateral agencies is weak. Help in rising democratic governance. Democracy rise from 20 countries to 80 in half century.
War can only be the result of miss- understanding, which can be dispelled if our politicians be allowed to meet for heart to heart talks.
History shows that weapons or large militaries cannot stop terrorist-related violence. Use of force further hardens the terrorists. More you suppress, more resistance power will grow.e.g. Israel and Palestine. LTTE and Sri Lankan Government, the mighty Indian Armed forces can not curb the terrorism in Kashmir.
We have to identify and address the reasons of violence and war. And all negative tendencies.
* Dr. Balkrishna Kurvey:
Recognition that peace is indivisible
- Equity and social justice
- Global thinking
- Non violence in national and international relations
- Cultivation of moral and ethical attitudes in international affairs
- Overcoming disproportional economic disparity and inequity between nations.
Educational qualification: M.A.(Modern History),M.A. (Political Science), M.Phil, Ph. D. (History of Civil Defense in India).
After 21 years in teaching as Associate Professor under Nagpur Universityin Modern History took voluntary retirement to devote for peace, disarmament and environmental protection, research, public education and awareness.
Founder President of the Indian Institute for Peace, Disarmament and Environmental Protection.
National Coordinator of Indian Campaign to Ban Landmines.
Introduced to IPPNW by Dr. Neil Arya in 1999.
Established “No More Hiroshima: No More Nagasaki: Peace Museum” in Nagpur on 6th August 1999.
Honorary Executive Director of IPPNW-Central India
Dr. Balkrishna Kurvey, Indian Institute for Peace, Disarmament & Environmental Protection
537, Sakkardara Road, Nagpur -440009 India.
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