Sicherheitsrat beriet zu Kindersoldaten
UNO-Bericht macht Schuldige namhaft
Der UNO-Sicherheitsrat erhöht den Druck auf Länder, in denen Kinder bewaffnet, zum Auskundschaften eingesetzt oder als Sexsklaven von Soldaten missbraucht werden.
Bei einer eintägigen Debatte über Kinder in bewaffneten Konflikten verurteilte
das UNO-Gremium jede Form der Ausbeutung von Minderjährigen und jede Gewalt gegen sie.
Mexikos Außenministerin Patricia Espinosa Cantellano erklärte: »Wir haben noch viel zu tun, wenn
wir nicht zusehen wollen, dass Kinder zu den am schlimmsten betroffenen Opfern dieser Art von
Gewalt zählen.« Mexiko hat im Juni den Vorsitz im Sicherheitsrat.
Nach Angaben der Ministerin starben seit den 90er Jahren über zwei Millionen Kinder in oder am
Rande von bewaffneten Konflikten. Weitere sechs Millionen Minderjährige wurden zu Krüppeln,
mehr als eine viertel Million zwang man zum Kriegsdienst und Tausende Mädchen wurden
vergewaltigt, sexuell missbraucht oder zur Prostitution gezwungen.
Im jüngsten UNO-Bericht werden die Armeen, Rebellengruppen oder Organisationen, die sich dieser
Menschenrechtsverbrechen schuldig machen, erstmals namentlich genannt. Unter ihnen ist unter
anderen die afghanische Polizei. Darüber hinaus werden Armeen und Rebellenorganisationen in
Kongo, Tschad, Sudan und besonders in der umkämpften Region Darfur, in Somalia und der
Zentralafrikanischen Republik öffentlich angeprangert. »Wir gehen davon aus, dass die Regierungen
dies zum Anlass nehmen, sich die Schuldigen jetzt vorzuknöpfen«, sagte die UNO-Sonderbeauftragte
Radhika Commaraswamy. Besorgniserregend ist ihren Worten nach auch der
Anstieg von Selbstmordattentaten durch junge Menschen in Afghanistan.
* Aus: Neues Deutschland, 18. Juni 2010
Mehr junge Selbstmordattentäter in Afghanistan **
Besorgniserregend ist nach den Worten Commaraswamys auch der Anstieg von Selbstmordattentaten durch junge Menschen in Afghanistan. 2009 hätten neun Jugendliche ihrem Leben und dem von anderen auf diese Art ein Ende gesetzt. Kinder würden nicht allein auf diese Idee kommen, sagte die UN-Beauftragte. Sie würden dazu gedrängt. "Wir müssen mit den Dorfgemeinschaften zusammenarbeiten, um diese Vorfälle zu verhindern."
In den Kriegs- und Krisengebieten der Welt werden nach Schätzungen des UN-Kinderhilfswerks UNICEF rund 250.000 Kinder und Jugendliche als Soldaten missbraucht. Die meisten Kindersoldaten gibt es in Birma. Das Kinderhilfswerk "terre des hommes" schätzt, dass allein dort 77.000 Minderjährige in der Regierungsarmee und bewaffneten Oppositionsgruppen kämpfen.
Gemeinsam mit anderen Organisationen hat UNICEF nach eigenen Angaben seit 2008 die Freilassung von mehr als 12.600 Kindern aus verschiedenen Armeen und bewaffneten Gruppen in neun Ländern erreicht. Unter den Freigelassenen waren auch 1648 Mädchen. Allein in Nepal unterstützt UNICEF die Wiedereingliederung 3000 ehemaliger Kindersoldaten. Über Wiedereingliederungsprogramme können sie einen Schulabschluss machen oder einen handwerklichen Berufs erlernen.
** Auszug aus einem Beitrag der Deutschen Welle vom 17. Juni 2010 ("UN verurteilen Einsatz von Kindersoldaten "); www.dw-world.de
Dokumentiert: Pressemitteilung des UN-Sicherheitsrats - Erklärung des Präsidenten des Sicherheitsrats
Security Council, in Presidential Statement, Reiterates ‘Strong Condemnation’ of Recruitment, Use of Children in Armed Conflict
Council’s Collective Voice ‘Must Be Used to Make Outcasts of Those Who Commit Acts against Children in War,’ Special Representative Says
The United Nations Security Council today reasserted its strong condemnation of the recruitment, killing, maiming, raping and other abuse of children during armed conflict, and expressed its readiness to take targeted measures against persistent perpetrators of those crimes.
Following a day-long meeting that heard from over 60 speakers — including the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict, representatives of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and a young abduction victim from Nepal — the Council expressed particular concern about the growing number of attacks against schools, teachers and pupils, through a statement read out by the representative of Mexico, which holds the 15-member body’s presidency for the month of June.
In considering targeted measures against persistent abusers of children as listed in the Secretary-General’s annual report (see Background), the Council invited its Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict to cooperate with relevant sanctions committees and their expert groups.
The Council called on the Secretary-General to redouble efforts to strengthen the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism as required in its resolution 1882 (2009). Welcoming the signing of action plans on halting abuse of children by some parties to conflict, it called on those that had not yet done so to sign such strategies without further delay.
“The collective voice of the Security Council, guided by the common moral compunction of humanity to protect its children, must be used to make outcasts of those who commit acts against children in war,” declared Radhika Coomaraswamy, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative. She welcomed resolution 1882 (2009), which had made sexual violence and the killing and maiming of children grounds for listing in the annual report, but she noted that having those two new “triggers” required further efforts to collect reliable information.
Describing cooperation with other actors on promoting the signing and implementation of action plans, she said that, for those who did not sign or implement such plans, sanctions and other accountability mechanisms were needed, with the strong involvement of national Governments.
Among growing threats to children, she spoke of attacks on schools, the use of children for military intelligence, the recruitment of children as suicide bombers and the use of aerial bombardment in counter-insurgency. She said that universal ratification of the Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child — respectively on the involvement of children in armed conflict, and on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography — would signify international moral consensus on protecting children.
Hilde Frafjord Johnson, Deputy Executive Director of UNICEF, said that, in the past year some 9,500 children had been removed from armed groups in countries implementing monitoring and reporting mechanism. That figure did not include the almost 3,000 children released in Nepal in January and February this year, she said, adding that those numbers told a compelling story: Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005) were making a real difference in children’s lives. UNICEF would continue to work for more forceful efforts to use them and other tools to assist the many thousands of children still suffering in conflict situations.
Atul Khare, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, said the inclusion of specific child protection provisions in peacekeeping mandates had helped the Department of Peacekeeping Operations strengthen its child-protection activities in countries where their missions were deployed, in collaboration with the Office of the Special Representative and UNICEF. Today there were Child Protection Advisers in nine peacekeeping operations, and extensive training of peacekeepers on child protection issues. He urged collective and concerted engagement at all levels to assure security for children affected by war.
Finally, Manju Gurung recounted her ordeal of abduction by Nepal’s Maoists at the age of 13, forced to perform heavy labour, trained for combat, beaten for refusing to marry and kept out of school before a human rights organization secured her release. “I felt sad, damaged and hopeless,” she said of the time she spent away from her family.
Following those presentations, delegates welcomed the effects of the adoption of Council resolution 1882 (2009), particularly the results that had been achieved through securing action plans from parties to conflicts, monitoring and reporting efforts and making additional violations and groups subject to listing in the Secretary-General’s report.
All speakers, however, also expressed deep concern over continuing abuse of children during conflict and the increased attacks against schools, and urged more coordinated and sustained effort at all levels to curb such actions. Also, most supported targeted sanctions against armed groups which persisted in abusing children over multiple reporting periods. Some countries, however, objected to the listing of their own armed forces or police, while others urged extra caution to make sure the information used for listing and de-listing countries was reliable and that sanctions, if applied, did not adversely affect the children it was supposed to help.
Council President Patricia Espinosa, Secretary for External Relations of Mexico, urged all States that had not done so to ratify the Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, maintaining that, “Protecting the most vulnerable is not only an ethical imperative […] it is also protecting our nations themselves”.
Also speaking today were the representatives of France, United States, Austria, Uganda, Turkey, Lebanon, Gabon, Russian Federation, Brazil, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Nigeria, United Kingdom, China, Japan, Canada (on behalf of the Group of Friends of Children in Armed Conflict), Switzerland, Colombia, Yemen, New Zealand, Thailand, Germany, Liechtenstein, South Africa, Viet Nam, Israel, Italy, Peru, Costa Rica (on behalf of the Human Security Network), Croatia, Argentina, Republic of Korea, India, Nepal, Iraq, Finland (also on behalf of Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), Afghanistan, Indonesia, Chile, Hungary, Belgium, Qatar, Sri Lanka, Slovenia, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Netherlands, Myanmar, Sierra Leone, Pakistan, Philippines, Bangladesh and Armenia.
The Acting Head of the European Union Delegation to the United Nations also spoke, and the Permanent Observer for Palestine made a statement.
The meeting began at 10:15 a.m., suspended at 1:04 p.m., resumed at 3:10 p.m. and closed at 8 p.m.
The full text of the statement contained in document S/PRST/2010 reads as follows:
“1. The Security Council takes note with appreciation of the 9th report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict (S/2010/181) and the recommendations contained therein as well as the positive developments referred to in the report, and notes the continuing challenges in the implementation of its resolution 1612 (2005), 1882 (2009) and other relevant resolutions reflected therein.
“2. The Security Councilreiterates its equally strong condemnation of all violations of applicable international law involving the recruitment and use of children by parties to armed conflict as well as their re-recruitment, killing and maiming, rape and other sexual violence, abductions, attacks against schools or hospitals and denial of humanitarian access by parties to armed conflict. The Council condemns all other violations of international law, including international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law, committed against children in situations of armed conflict. The Council demands that all relevant parties immediately put an end to such practices and take special measures to protect children.
“3. The Security Council expresses deep concern about the growing number of attacks or threats of attacks in contravention of applicable international law against schools and educational facilities, and teachers and pupils, in particular the specific targeting of girls and in this regard calls upon all parties to armed conflict to cease immediately these violations of international humanitarian law.
“4. The Security Council welcomes the steps taken by the Secretary-General in the implementation of resolution 1882 (2009) by including in the annexes of his report those parties to armed conflict that engage, in contravention of applicable international law, in patterns of killing and maiming of children and/or rape and other sexual violence, in situations of armed conflict.
“5. The Security Council calls upon the Secretary-General to redouble his efforts to ensure strengthening of the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism’s capacities with a view to the implementation of resolution 1882 (2009) to allow for prompt advocacy and effective response to all violations and abuses committed against children, inter alia, by ensuring that all relevant UN agencies actively help to collect accurate, objective, reliable and verifiable information on acts of rape and other sexual violence committed against children, and also by ensuring synergies and avoiding overlap among relevant UN entities, at the headquarters and country levels as requested by resolutions 1882 (2009) and 1888 (2009).
“6. The Security Council reaffirms its decision in OP11 of its resolution 1882 (2009) to continue to include specific provisions for the protection of children in the mandates of all relevant United Nations peacekeeping, peacebuilding and political missions, encourages the deployment of Child Protection Advisers to such missions and calls upon the Secretary-General to ensure that such advisors are recruited and deployed in line with the Council’s relevant country-specific resolutions and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) Policy Directive on Mainstreaming the Protection Rights and Wellbeing of Children Affected by Armed Conflict. It further underscores the importance of training on child rights and child protection for all personnel involved in United Nations peacekeeping, peace building and political missions and in this regard welcomes the ongoing efforts by DPKO in developing the policy implementation plan, including training programmes and materials.
“7. The Security Council welcomes the progress made in preventing and responding to violations and abuses committed against children especially with regard to the signing of action plans by some parties as mentioned in the 9th report of the Secretary-General (S/2010/181).
“8. The Security Council reiteratesits call on parties to armed conflict listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s report on children and armed conflict that have not already done so to prepare and implement, without further delay, action plans to halt recruitment and use of children, patterns of killing and maiming of children and/or rape and other sexual violence against children, in violation of applicable international law, in situations of armed conflict.
“9. The Security Council also reiterates its call to all parties listed in the annexes to the Secretary-General’s report on children and armed conflict to address all other violations and abuses committed against children and undertake specific commitments and measures in this regard.
“10. The Security Council expresses deep concern that certain parties persist in committing violations and abuses against children, and expresses its readiness to adopt targeted and graduated measures against persistent perpetrators taking in to account the relevant provisions of its resolutions 1539 (2004), 1612 (2005) and 1882 (2009). To this end, the Council invites:
(a) Its Working Group on children and armed conflictto exchange pertinent information with relevant Sanctions Committees, in particular through communication of the Working Group’s relevant recommendations.
(b) Its relevant Sanctions Committees to consider inviting more regularly the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for children and armed conflict to brief them on specific information contained in the Secretary General’s reports.
(c) The Special Representative of the Secretary-General for children and armed conflict to share specific information contained in the Secretary-General’s reports with relevant Sanctions Committees expert groups.
“11. The Security Council expresses its intention, when establishing or renewing the mandate of relevant Sanctions Committees, to consider provisions pertaining to parties that are in violation of applicable international law relating to the rights and protection of children in armed conflict.
“12. The Security Council expresses its readiness to consider specific recommendations from its Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict on violations and abuses committed against children by parties listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General's reports, whenever they occur, with a view to considering action on them, without prejudging or implying a decision by the Security Council as to whether or not to include a situation in its agenda.
“13. The Security Council calls uponconcerned Member States to take decisive and immediate action against persistent perpetrators of violations and abuses committed against children in situations of armed conflict, and further calls upon them to bring to justice those responsible for such violations that are prohibited under applicable international law, including with regard to recruitment and use of children, killing and maiming and rape and other sexual violence, through national justice systems, and where applicable, international justice mechanisms and mixed criminal courts and tribunals, with a view to ending impunity for those committing crimes against children.
“14. Given the regional dimensions of some armed conflicts referred to in the Secretary- General’s report, the Security Council reiterates its request that United Nations peacekeeping, peacebuilding and political missions as well as United Nations country teams, within their respective mandates and in close cooperation with governments of the concerned countries, develop appropriate strategies and coordination mechanisms for information exchange and cooperation on cross-border child protection concerns.
“15. The Security Council welcomes the overall work of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for children and armed conflict and highlights the importance of her field visits in enhancing dialogue with concerned governments and parties to the conflict, including by negotiating action plans, securing commitments, advocating for appropriate response mechanisms and ensuring appropriate attention and follow up to the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict conclusions and recommendations.
“16. The Security Council also welcomes the efforts undertaken by UNICEF in carrying out its mandate on child protection by supporting the overall development and implementation of the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM) and ensuring appropriate response to children in armed conflict, and encourages it to continue to follow up, through the MRM Country Task Forces, on relevant conclusions and recommendations of the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict.
“17. The Security Council welcomes the sustained activity of its Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict and stresses the importance of continuing to adopt timely conclusions and recommendations in line with resolutions 1612 (2005) and 1882 (2009). Furthermore, the Council invites the Working Group to fully implement its toolkit (S/2006/724), inter alia, by carrying out a country-specific visit within one year, to examine a situation referred to in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s report in order to better fulfil its mandate and enhance its capacity to protect children affected by armed conflict.
“18. Recalling previous Presidential statements on children and armed conflict as well as paragraph 18 of resolution 1882 (2009), the Security Council reiterates its request to the Secretary-General to provide administrative and substantive support for its Working Group on children and armed conflict and further requests the Secretary-General to take action on this subject within one month of this date.
“19. The Security Council requests the Secretary-General to submit a report by May 2011 on the implementation of its resolutions and Presidential statements on children and armed conflict, including the present statement.”
Source: Website of the United Nations; Security Council, 6341st Meeting (AM & PM), 16 June 2010; SC/9956; www.un.org
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