Amnesty wirft Hamas Kriegsverbrechen vor
Radikal-Islamische Organisation ermordete während des Gaza-Kriegs 2014 dutzende politische Gegner *
Jerusalem. In den Wirren des Gaza-Kriegs im vergangenen Sommer hat die im Gazastreifen herrschende Hamas laut Amnesty International dutzende Palästinenser hingerichtet oder gefoltert. Die radikalislamische Organisation habe den Konflikt »für eine schamlose Abrechnung« mit ihren Gegnern ausgenutzt, kritisiert die Menschenrechtsorganisation in einem am Mittwoch veröffentlichten Bericht. Die israelische Luftwaffe flog derweil Angriffe auf mehrere Ziele im Gazastreifen.
Die Hamas habe den Konflikt mit der israelischen Armee genutzt, um sich ihrer Gegner im Gazastreifen zu entledigen, heißt es in dem Amnesty-Bericht. Sie habe mindestens 23 Palästinenser hingerichtet und Dutzende weitere gefoltert. Die Hamas habe »eine brutale Kampagne mit Entführungen, Folter und Verbrechen gegen Palästinenser« geführt, denen Zusammenarbeit mit Israel zur Last gelegt worden sei.
»Es ist absolut grauenvoll, dass, während die israelischen Truppen der Bevölkerung des Gazastreifens massive menschliche und materielle Verluste zufügten, die Truppen von Hamas dies für eine schamlose Abrechnung ausnutzten«, erklärte der Amnesty-Direktor für den Nahen Osten und Nordafrika, Philip Luther.
Dem Bericht zufolge verschleppte, folterte und attackierte die Hamas unter anderem Mitglieder der im Westjordanland regierenden Fatah. Keines der Vergehen der Hamas gegen Palästinenser sei geahndet worden. Dies deute darauf hin, »dass die Verbrechen von den Behörden entweder angeordnet oder gebilligt« worden seien, schrieb Amnesty.
Einige der Vergehen sind nach Einschätzung von Luther als Kriegsverbrechen einzustufen. Die Hamas habe »die elementarsten Regeln der internationalen Menschenrechte missachtet«. Amnesty rief die Behörden im Westjordanland und die Hamas auf, zur Klärung der Fälle mit unabhängigen internationalen Ermittlern zusammenzuarbeiten.
Im März hatte Amnesty bereits mehreren bewaffneten Palästinensergruppen Kriegsverbrechen vorgeworfen. Die vom Gazastreifen während des Gaza-Kriegs abgefeuerten Raketen töteten demnach mehr Palästinenser als Israelis. Auch dem israelischen Staat legte die Menschenrechtsorganisation Kriegsverbrechen zur Last. Die Palästinenser wollen die Verantwortlichen in Israel in diesem Zusammenhang vor den Internationalen Strafgerichtshof (IStGH) bringen. Israel, das die Zuständigkeit des Tribunals nicht anerkennt, leitete selbst in mehreren Fällen Untersuchungen ein.
In dem 50-tägigen bewaffneten Konflikt mit Israel im Juli und August 2014 waren im Gazastreifen mehr als 2200 Palästinenser, zumeist Zivilisten, getötet worden. Auf israelischer Seite starben 73 Menschen, darunter 67 Soldaten.
Am Dienstag wurde aus dem Gazastreifen der dritte Raketenangriff auf Israel seit Ende des bewaffneten Konflikts im Sommer verübt. Dabei wurde niemand verletzt. Die israelische Luftwaffe reagierte auf den Beschuss am Mittwoch mit vier Angriffen in dem Palästinensergebiet. Die Einsätze hätten sich gegen »vier Terrorinfrastrukturen im südlichen Gazastreifen« gerichtet, erklärte Armeesprecher Peter Lerner. Es sei »nicht hinnehmbar«, dass die Hamas den Gazastreifen als Ausgangspunkt für Angriffe auf Israel nutze.
Augenzeugen berichteten, Ausbildungslager der mit der Hamas verbündeten Organisation Islamischer Dschihad in Rafah, Chan Junis und Gaza-Stadt seien Ziele der Bombardements gewesen.
* Aus: neues deutschland, Mittwoch, 27. Mai 2015
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Gaza: Palestinians tortured, summarily killed by Hamas forces during 2014 conflict, ai says **
Im Folgenden dokumentieren wir eine Erklärung von amnesty international zum Gaza-Krieg 2014. Wir fanden sie lediglich in der englischen Ausgabe der ai-Website (am 27. Mai 2015) und dokumentieren sie im Folgenden.
Hamas forces carried out a brutal campaign of abductions, torture and unlawful killings against Palestinians accused of “collaborating” with Israel and others during Israel’s military offensive against Gaza in July and August 2014, according to a new report by Amnesty International.
‘Strangling Necks’: Abduction, torture and summary killings of Palestinians by Hamas forces during the 2014 Gaza/Israel conflict highlights a series of abuses, such as the extrajudicial execution of at least 23 Palestinians and the arrest and torture of dozens of others, including members and supporters of Hamas’s political rivals, Fatah.
“It is absolutely appalling that, while Israeli forces were inflicting massive death and destruction upon the people in Gaza, Hamas forces took the opportunity to ruthlessly settle scores, carrying out a series of unlawful killings and other grave abuses,” said Philip Luther ***, Director of the Middle East and North Africa Programme at Amnesty International.
“In the chaos of the conflict, the de facto Hamas administration granted its security forces free rein to carry out horrific abuses including against people in its custody. These spine-chilling actions, some of which amount to war crimes, were designed to exact revenge and spread fear across the Gaza Strip.”
Many of these unlawful killings were publicly billed as attacks against people assisting Israel during the July and August 2014 conflict as part of an operation, codenamed “Strangling Necks”, to target “collaborators”. However, in reality, at least 16 of those executed had been in Hamas custody since before the conflict broke out. Many had been awaiting the outcome of their trials when they were taken away from prison and summarily executed.
Hamas forces also abducted, tortured or attacked members and supporters of Fatah, their main rival political organization within Gaza, including former members of the Palestinian Authority security forces.
Not a single person has been held accountable for the crimes committed by Hamas forces against Palestinians during the 2014 conflict, indicating that these crimes were either ordered or condoned by the authorities.
“Instead of upholding justice, the Hamas authorities and leadership have continuously encouraged and facilitated these appalling crimes against powerless individuals. Their failure to even condemn the unlawful killings, abduction and torture of perceived suspects leaves them effectively with blood on their hands,” said Philip Luther.
Atta Najjar, a former police officer under the Palestinian Authority who has a mental disability, was serving a 15-year prison term imposed by a military court after he was arrested in 2009 and subsequently convicted of “collaborating” with Israel. On 22 August 2014, he was taken out from the prison and executed.
“There were marks of torture and bullet shots on his body. His arms and legs were broken… his body was as if you’d put it in a bag and smashed it... His body was riddled with about 30 bullets. He had slaughter marks around his neck, marks of knives… And from behind the head – there was no brain. Empty… It was difficult for us to carry him… He was heavy, like when you put meat in a bag; no bones. His bones were smashed. They broke him in the prison,” said his brother, who retrieved the body from al-Shifa hospital morgue on 22 August 2014.
Eight detainees were still on trial charged with “collaboration” with Israel at the time of their executions. Six others had been awaiting the outcome of appeals against death sentences from a military court in Gaza on the same charges. Two others had been convicted and were serving prison terms when they were executed. Many had been sentenced after trials before courts whose proceedings are grossly unfair. A number had said they had been tortured in order to extract “confessions”.
Ibrahim Dabour, an insurance company employee and father of two children, was held at Katiba Prison in Gaza City standing trial before a military court on a charge of “communicating with hostile sides” when he was taken out and extrajudicially executed by firing squad on 22 August 2014.
“We were told about the execution by people around us at 1pm. There was no official notification. He was executed at 9:30am on Friday. My brother received a text message at 10:31pm that night saying ‘The judgement against Ibrahim Dabour has been carried out according to the Shari’a as per the ruling of the Revolutionary Court’,” his brother told Amnesty International.
“Even if he had been sentenced to death, there would have been an appeals process and other alternatives. What they have done is nothing to do with justice, it’s just criminal. These are the actions of militias,” he said.
In one of the most shocking incidents six men were publicly executed by Hamas forces outside al-Omari mosque on 22 August in front of hundreds of spectators including children. Hamas announced the men were suspected “collaborators” who had been sentenced death in “revolutionary courts”. The hooded men were dragged along the floor to kneel by a wall facing the crowd, then each man was shot in the head individually before being sprayed with bullets fired from an AK-47.
“The Hamas leadership repeatedly calls for rights and justice for Palestinians in Gaza and elsewhere. But they do not always act in a manner that reflects respect for rights, justice and the rule of law. By failing to halt such grave violations, the Hamas authorities are dragging the name of justice through the mud and condoning these appalling crimes,” said Philip Luther.
As well as carrying out unlawful killings, others abducted by Hamas were subjected to torture, including severe beatings with truncheons, gun butts, hoses and wire or held in stress positions. Some were interrogated and tortured or otherwise ill-treated in a disused outpatient’s clinic within the grounds of Gaza City’s main al-Shifa hospital. At least three people arrested during the conflict accused of “collaboration” died in custody.
“Hamas forces have displayed a disregard for the most fundamental rules of international humanitarian law. Torture and cruel treatment of detainees in an armed conflict is a war crime. Extrajudicial executions are also war crimes. The de facto administration in Gaza must send a message to all law enforcement forces to treat prisoners humanely at all times. All allegations of extrajudicial execution and torture must be impartially and independently investigated and the perpetrators brought to justice in fair trials,” said Philip Luther.
Amnesty International is calling on the Palestinian authorities, including the Hamas de facto administration in Gaza, to co-operate with independent and impartial international investigative mechanisms, judicial or non-judicial, including the Commission of Inquiry set up by the UN Human Rights Council in July 2014. They should seek to ensure that the cases documented in this report, among others, are investigated impartially and independently and that, wherever there is sufficient admissible evidence, suspected perpetrators are brought to justice in proceedings that fully respect international fair trial standards and without recourse to the death penalty.
** Source: amnesty international, 27 May 2015, https://www.amnesty.org/en [externer Link]
*** Philip Luther, Director of the Middle East and North Africa Programme at Amnesty International.